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Original Article Free Access. Tools Request permission Export citation Add to favorites Track citation. Share Give access Share full text access. Share full text access. Please review our Terms and Conditions of Use and check box below to share full-text version of article. The paper consists of the following four sections: Research priorities identified in the GFRA gap analysis. Literature review Without effective diagnostics, disease control is at best partially sighted, if not fumbling in the dark.
Antibody detection Conventional tests for the detection of antibodies against FMDV structural proteins, raised after vaccination or infection, use detection antigens derived from live virus, which require specialized biosafety level 3 facilities to produce securely.
Diagnostic capacity A clear global picture of the distribution and movements of FMD strains within and between regions and countries is lacking. For vaccine matching, see series paper 3 Vaccines. Like other laboratories mentioned, they are active in twinning programmes to assist other laboratories. Various aspects of FMDV diagnostic optimization, including virus inactivation by nucleic acid extraction buffers. Measuring vaccine effectiveness and development of diagnostics in East Africa. Wageningen, Netherlands — NSP tests, assessing alternatives to the current commercial tests, and studying the timing of NSP antibody responses after infection or vaccination in cattle and small ruminants.
Updated research priorities Continued development of molecular and genetic technologies, and novel analytical techniques are vital and will in turn benefit many different areas of FMD research. Acknowledgements The authors gratefully acknowledge the input of all scientists and institutes that responded to the requests for research activity updates. Abd El Wahed, A. Abd El Kader , A.
Ahmed , S. Hassan , B. Hoffmann , B.
Haas , M. Shalaby , F. Hufert , and M. Google Scholar. Wiley Online Library Google Scholar. Citing Literature.
References Related Information. Martinez-Costas 3. Monteagudo 5. Heegaard, Yongxiang Fang, and Gregers Jungersen 6. Lee, Avery August, Jamie J. Arnold, and Craig E. Cameron 7. Morris, Alison V. Turner, Nicola Green, and George M. Warimwe 9.
Chinese border disease virus strain JSLS infects piglets and down-regulates the antibody responses of classical swine fever virus C strain vaccination. While the occurrence of a future influenza pandemic is almost certain, it is impossible to predict the characteristics of the virus and the severity of the symptoms it induces. Methods and clinical development of adenovirus-vectored vaccines against mucosal pathogens. Abstract: Foot and Mouth Disease FMD is one of the most contagious viral diseases of mammals that have an ability to cause high economic losses in susceptible cloven-hoofed animals. C Fourier shell correlation FSC curve of the final reconstruction. It is however still impossible to distinguish between vaccinated and infected animals, and further research is needed. Not yet validated for international standards.
Wichgers Schreur More Books in Immunology See All. In Stock. Interestingly, all the complement-dependent neutralizing antibodies bind gB at the crown region domain IV. In contrast, the epitope of 1H1 mAb is located at the bottom of domain I, which includes the fusion loops, indicating 1H1 mAb might neutralize the virus by interfering with the membrane fusion process. Our studies demonstrate that gB contains multiple B-cell epitopes in its crown and base regions and that antibodies targeting different epitopes block virus infection through different mechanisms.
These findings would provide important clues for antiviral drug design and vaccine development. Pseudorabies virus PRV is an emerging veterinary pathogen that infects many domestic animals. Since , highly pathogenic PRV variants have emerged in many farms in China and posed great economic burdens to the animal industry.
However, the current marketed vaccines cannot provide effective protection against these emerging strains. In order to control PRV epidemics and treat associated diseases, we combined structural and immunological approaches to generate potential neutralizing antibodies targeting PRV gB and investigate their working mechanisms.
A total of 15 monoclonal antibodies mAbs were identified with good neutralizing activity. In contrast, the remaining 1H1 mAb recognizes domain I of PRV gB, which can neutralize virus entry independent of complement and probably by interfering with the membrane fusion process. Our work reveals the structural details and immunogenic properties of PRV gB and may offer important guidance for developing antiviral therapeutics and vaccines against PRV infections. PLoS Pathog 13 12 : e This is an open access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License , which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original author and source are credited.
The funders had no role in study design, data collection and analysis, decision to publish, or preparation of the manuscript.
Competing interests: The authors have declared that no competing interests exist. Pseudorabies virus PRV belongs to the family Herpesviridae , subfamily Alphaherpesvirinae , and genus Varicellovirus [ 1 ]. It is an important nervous system tropic pathogen in livestock and infects a variety of mammalian species, including ruminants, carnivores, and rodents [ 2 ].
Pigs, the natural host of PRV, are a unique animal species that can survive a productive PRV infection and suffer life-long latent infections in the peripheral nervous system [ 3 ]. For other susceptible animals, PRV infection is usually fatal [ 4 ]. In pigs, the clinical signs of infection vary with the age of the infected individuals. Newborn piglets infected with PRV may develop nervous system disorders and even deaths. For adult pigs however, PRV infection often leads to respiratory diseases. In addition, the virus can even cross the placental barrier of pregnant sows to infect the fetuses and cause abortion [ 3 — 5 ].
Although several countries have eradicated PRV, such as the USA, New Zealand and many members of the European Union, it is still circulating sporadically in many regions all around the globe [ 6 ]. Highly pathogenic PRV variants have emerged in numbers of pig farms in China since late [ 5 , 7 — 10 ]. The driving force behind the high virulence of emerging PRV variants remains unknown. The marketed attenuated live vaccine Bartha-K61 is widely used in the pig industry of China in recent years. Unfortunately, Bartha-K61 cannot confer effective protection against the emerging PRV variants [ 8 , 10 ].
Thus, the epidemics have the potential to spread outside China to reach the surrounding countries, posing great threats to the pig industry of Asia-Pacific and south-east Asia. Further research on the emerging PRV variant strains is urgently required to control the epidemic situation and further eradicate the disease [ 11 — 13 ].
As the viral fusogen, gB is essential for both viral entry and cell-to-cell spread [ 15 — 18 ]. To induce membrane fusion, the gH-gL heterodimer is required to cooperate with the fusogenic gB [ 17 , 19 — 21 ]. Most alphaherpesviruses also require gD to bind receptors and further activate gB to become fusion competent [ 19 , 21 , 22 ]. Previously, 26 gB-specific mAbs were identified that cannot directly neutralize PRV in vitro but effectively blocked the virus entry in the presence of complement [ 28 ]. Further biochemical studies mapped the epitopes of these antibodies to be within three main regions of gB, residues 59—, —, and —, respectively [ 29 ].
Most antibodies target epitopes within residues — [ 29 ]. In order to develop better therapeutics and vaccines, more efforts should be made to characterize the structural and immunogenic properties of gBs of these emerging highly pathogenic PRV variants.